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Led therapy via photoinduced electron transfer

 

Life needs energy. We get this energy from combustion of organic substances derived by digestion from organic food. Organic food is in the last analysis produced by plants from inorganic material and solar energy via photosynthesis. The combustion process also requires oxygen. This is provided by the lungs. Both the oxygen and the organic substances required for combustion are transported by the blood stream to all the cells of the organism.



The most important part of the combustion, which provides the energy for the life processes, takes place in the mitochondria, the power stations of the cells, where it is carried out by a series of enzymes called the RESPIRATORT CHAIN. Via this respiratory chain organic substances called FADH2 (or fully spelled out as: reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide) and NADH (or reduced nicotine adenine dinucleotide) undergocombustion by reacting with oxygen, thereby transforming the oxygen into water. The combustion is known to the chemists as a redox reaction, where "red" denotes reduction and "ox" denotes oxidation. Reduction means to give one or more electrons and oxidation means to receive electrons. Thus a redox reaction is an electron transfer (ET) from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. Once the acceptor molecule in the respiratory chain has received an electron it becomes a donor with respect to the next acceptor in the chain.

In ordinary combustion reactions, the energy is produced in the form of heat. In the cells we have an enzymatic process, via the respiratory chain where a series of redox reactions take place gradually. The energy produced at each step of the series is not wasted in the form of heat but is used to transform a molecule of ADP (adenosine diphosphate) into the highly energetic molecule ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP is needed in all the vital processes of the cell. Without it a cell would die of exhaustion immediately.

The redox processes in the respiratory chain represent an important part of the redox reactions occurring in biological tissues. We have said that these reactions produce energy. Why is this so? Because the attraction energy of the acceptor molecule for the electron, called its electron affinity by the chemist, is larger than the electron affinity of the donor molecule. It is this difference of energy, which causes the redox reaction and is exploited in the respiratory chain to produce ATP. However in order to trigger the redox reaction some energy, called activation energy, is needed. Why? In order to overcome the electron affinity of the donor molecule. At any given time only a small part of the donor molecules possess the required activation energy. This causes the redox reaction to be relatively slow. For a perfectly healthy organism that is sufficient. However, under more stressful conditions the redox reactions require activation (acceleration). That is where the light provided by the red and infrared leds is needed.

Important note: Where does the activation energy come from? It comes from a disordered form of motion of the particles (atoms and molecules) that form the system. This disordered motion is known as heat. Thus by heating the system, that is to say by increasing its temperature, the redox reactions are accelerated. Now, light is a form of energy, which can be transformed into heat, another form of energy. Therefore, the action of the leds is just a contribution to the activation energy. However, it is a very sophisticated way of heating as can be noted immediately by observing that the temperature of the system remains almost constant. So if there is heating it is a highly specific way of heating localized where it is needed: at the enzymes, which precisely possess the needed chromophores capable of absorbing the radiation. These chromophores happen to be the site where the redox reaction takes place. This localized heating, when redistributed over the whole system produces a negligible increase in the temperature, whereas a considerable and damaging increase of the temperature of the total system would have to be achieved to provide the energy needed at the site of the redox reaction.

Thus, localized heating at the site of the chromophores engaged in the redox reaction is the process by which the light energy of the leds activate the redox reactions, which are of extreme importance in all biological functions. Under the influence of the leds the ET process becomes what is known as photo-induced electron transfer (PET). All we know about low-level light therapy can be understood as the result of the acceleration of the vital redox reactions in the organism by means of PET!

Led therapy via photoinduced electron transfer

 

Life needs energy. We get this energy from combustion of organic substances derived by digestion from organic food. Organic food is in the last analysis produced by plants from inorganic material and solar energy via photosynthesis. The combustion process also requires oxygen. This is provided by the lungs. Both the oxygen and the organic substances required for combustion are transported by the blood stream to all the cells of the organism.



The most important part of the combustion, which provides the energy for the life processes, takes place in the mitochondria, the power stations of the cells, where it is carried out by a series of enzymes called the RESPIRATORT CHAIN. Via this respiratory chain organic substances called FADH2 (or fully spelled out as: reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide) and NADH (or reduced nicotine adenine dinucleotide) undergocombustion by reacting with oxygen, thereby transforming the oxygen into water. The combustion is known to the chemists as a redox reaction, where "red" denotes reduction and "ox" denotes oxidation. Reduction means to give one or more electrons and oxidation means to receive electrons. Thus a redox reaction is an electron transfer (ET) from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. Once the acceptor molecule in the respiratory chain has received an electron it becomes a donor with respect to the next acceptor in the chain.

In ordinary combustion reactions, the energy is produced in the form of heat. In the cells we have an enzymatic process, via the respiratory chain where a series of redox reactions take place gradually. The energy produced at each step of the series is not wasted in the form of heat but is used to transform a molecule of ADP (adenosine diphosphate) into the highly energetic molecule ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP is needed in all the vital processes of the cell. Without it a cell would die of exhaustion immediately.

The redox processes in the respiratory chain represent an important part of the redox reactions occurring in biological tissues. We have said that these reactions produce energy. Why is this so? Because the attraction energy of the acceptor molecule for the electron, called its electron affinity by the chemist, is larger than the electron affinity of the donor molecule. It is this difference of energy, which causes the redox reaction and is exploited in the respiratory chain to produce ATP. However in order to trigger the redox reaction some energy, called activation energy, is needed. Why? In order to overcome the electron affinity of the donor molecule. At any given time only a small part of the donor molecules possess the required activation energy. This causes the redox reaction to be relatively slow. For a perfectly healthy organism that is sufficient. However, under more stressful conditions the redox reactions require activation (acceleration). That is where the light provided by the red and infrared leds is needed.

Important note: Where does the activation energy come from? It comes from a disordered form of motion of the particles (atoms and molecules) that form the system. This disordered motion is known as heat. Thus by heating the system, that is to say by increasing its temperature, the redox reactions are accelerated. Now, light is a form of energy, which can be transformed into heat, another form of energy. Therefore, the action of the leds is just a contribution to the activation energy. However, it is a very sophisticated way of heating as can be noted immediately by observing that the temperature of the system remains almost constant. So if there is heating it is a highly specific way of heating localized where it is needed: at the enzymes, which precisely possess the needed chromophores capable of absorbing the radiation. These chromophores happen to be the site where the redox reaction takes place. This localized heating, when redistributed over the whole system produces a negligible increase in the temperature, whereas a considerable and damaging increase of the temperature of the total system would have to be achieved to provide the energy needed at the site of the redox reaction.

Thus, localized heating at the site of the chromophores engaged in the redox reaction is the process by which the light energy of the leds activate the redox reactions, which are of extreme importance in all biological functions. Under the influence of the leds the ET process becomes what is known as photo-induced electron transfer (PET). All we know about low-level light therapy can be understood as the result of the acceleration of the vital redox reactions in the organism by means of PET!